**ANTENNAS AND PROPOGATION Very Important Questions**

__CHAPTER 1: Antenna Basics__- Define the following parameters w.r.t antenna:

i.
Radiation resistance.

ii.
Beam area.

iii.
Radiation intensity.

iv.
Directivity.

v.
Gain.

vi.
Isotropic radiator.

vii.
Directive gain.

viii.
Hertzian dipole.

ix.
Power gain.

x.
Efficiency.

xi.
Power density.

xii.
Steradians & radians.

- With the help of neat diagrams explain the principle
of radiation in antennas.
- Explain the antenna as a transmitting device and as a
receiving device.
- Write a note on radiation pattern and radiation
lobes.
- Draw the radiation pattern of: (i) Directional
antenna. (ii) Isotropic antenna.
- Explain different types of aperture.
- Define aperture of an antenna and find its relation
with directivity.
- Explain effective height of an antenna.
- Derive FRIIS transmission formula and explain its
significance.
- Derive an expression for power radiated by an
isotropic antenna.
- Derive the relation between directivity and beam
solid angle.
- Derive the relationship between radiation resistance
and efficiency.
- Derive an expression for field intensity at a distant
point.
- Write short notes on: (a) Fields of an oscillating
dipole

(b) Antenna field zones.

- Show that an
isotropic radiator radiating 1 KW power gives a field of 173mv/m at a
distance of 1 Km.
- Find the directivity of an antenna having radiation
resistance of 72 ƒ¶
and loss resistance of 12 ƒ¶
and a gain of 20.
- What is the maximum effective aperture of a microwave
antenna which has a directivity of 900?
- Using FRISS transmission formula find the maximum
power received at a distance of 0.75 Km over a free space. A 100 MHz
circuit consisting of a transmitting antenna of 30dB gain and a receiving
antenna with a 25dB gain is used. The power input to the transmitting
antenna is 120W.
- A radio station radiates a total power of 10KW and a
gain of 30. Find the field intensity at a distance of 100Km from the
antenna. Assume free space propagation.
- Find the number of square degrees in the solid angle
on a spherical surface that is between ?=20
^{o}and 40^{o }and ?=30^{o}and 70^{o}. - Calculate the length of half wave dipole antenna
meant to have wavelength at 60MHz.
- Calculate the gain of an antenna with a circular
aperture of diameter 3m at a frequency of 5 GHz.
- An antenna radiates a total power of 100W in the
direction of maximum radiation, the field strength at a distance of 10Km
was found to be 12mV/m. What is the gain of the antenna? Assume free space
propagation. If ?=90%
find directivity.
- An antenna has a radiation resistance of 72ƒ¶ loss
resistance of 8ƒ¶
power gain of 12dB. Determine the antenna efficiency and directivity.
- An antenna has a loss resistance of 10ƒ¶ power
gain of 20 and directivity gain of 22. Calculate the radiation resistance.
- Calculate the effective length of a ƒÉ/2
antenna gives Rr=73
ƒ¶ effective aperture 0.13
ƒÉ
^{2}. - An antenna radiates power equally in all directions.
The total power delivered to the radiator is 100 KW. Calculate the power
density at distance of (i) 100m (ii) 1000m.

__CHAPTER 2: Point Sources__
28.Dpoint source. Explain different types
of power pattern.

- Explain power theorem.
- Find the directivity for the following intensity
patterns:
- Hemispheric power pattern of a uni directional
antenna.
- Unidirectional cosine power pattern.
- Bi directional sine power pattern.
- Bi directional sin
^{2}power pattern. - Unidirectional cos
^{2}power pattern. - Show that directivity for unidirectional operation is
2(n+1) for an intensity variation of U=UmCos
^{n}?.

__CHAPTER 3: Antenna Arrays__- Write a note on antenna arrays. Mention the factors
on which the resultant pattern
- depends.
- Differentiate between BSA and EFA.
- Draw the radiation pattern of
- 2 isotropic point sources of same amplitude and phase
that are ?/2 apart along X axis symmetric w.r.t origin & ƒÂ=0
- 2 isotropic point sources of same amplitude and phase
that are ?/2 apart along X axis symmetric w.r.t origin & ƒÂ=ƒÎ
- 2 isotropic point sources of same amplitude and opposite phase that are ?/2 apart along
X axis symmetric w.r.t origin & ƒÂ=0
- 2 isotropic point sources of same amplitude and phase
that are ?/2 apart along X axis with 1 source at origin & ƒÂ=0
- 2 isotropic point sources of same amplitude and in
phase quadrature.
- Derive an expression for electric field intensity of
array of n isotropic sources of equal amplitude and spacing and having a
phase difference of ƒÕ.
- Explain the principle of pattern multiplication.
- Obtain the electric field intensity of non isotropic
but similar point sources.
- obtain the radiation pattern of 4 sources forming a
uniform BSA with a spacing of ?/2.
- Obtain BWFN & HPBW for BSA.
- Obtain BWFN & HPBW for EFA.
- Explain Hansen Woodyard condition for increased
directivity.
- 4 sources have equal magnitude & are spaced ?/2
apart. Maximum field is to be in line with sources. Plot the field pattern
of the array given ƒÕ=0.
- Find BWFN for uniform EFA & extended EFA. Given
(i) n=4 (ii) d= ?/2.
- The principle lobe width of uniform 10 elements of
BSA was observed to be 30
^{o}at a frequency of 30MHz. Estimate the distance between the individual elements of the array. - A uniform linear array consists of 16 isotropic
sources with a spacing of ?/4 & phase difference ƒÂ= - 90
^{o}. Calculate HPBW & effective aperture. - The main lobe width of 8 elements of BSA was observed
to be 45
^{o}at a frequency of 20MHz. Estimate the distance. N=8. - An EFA is composed of elements with the axis at right
angles to the line of the array is required to have a power gain of 20.
Calculate the array length and width of the major lobe between the nulls.
- Calculate exact & approximate BWFN for BSA given
n=4 & d= ?/2..
- A BSA operating at 200cm wavelength consists of 4
dipoles spaced ?/2 apart & having Rr=73ƒ¶.
Each element carries radio frequency in same phase & of magnitude 0.5
A. Calculate (i) radiated power. (ii) HPBW.
- Complete the field pattern & find BWFN & HPBW
for a linear uniform array of 6 isotropic sources spaced ?/2 apart. The
power is applied with equal amplitude and in phase.
- An array of 4 isotropic antennas is placed along a
straight line. Distance between the elements is ?/2. The peak is to be
obtained in the direction from the axis of the array. What should be the
phase difference between the adjacent elements? Compute the pattern and
find BWFN & HPBW.

__CHAPTER 4: Electric dipole and thin linear antenna.__- Starting from the concepts of magnetic vector and
electric scalar potentials derive the expressions for field components of
short dipole.
- Derive the expression for radiation resistance of
Hertzian dipole.
- Distinguish between far field and near field.
- Derive an expression for power density of short
dipole.
- Derive an expression for intrinsic impedance of short
dipole.
- Derive the expression for electric & magnetic
fields of linear antenna.
- Derive the expression for radiation resistance of
linear antenna.
- Find the radiation resistance of Hertzian dipole
whose wavelength is ?/8.
- S.T directivity of short dipole is 1.5.
- A thin dipole is ?/15 long. If its loss resistance is
1.5 ƒ¶, find
its efficiency.
- A short dipole antenna was observed to have Rr=2 ƒ¶ at
1MHz. Calculate its length.
- Calculate the efficiency of an antenna operated at
500 KHz and having a resistance 12
ƒ¶ and effective height=30m.
- 2m long vertical wire carries a current of 5A at 1MHz
find the strength of the radiated field at 30Km in the direction at right
angles to the axis of the wire. Assume that the wire is in free space.
- A plain wave is incident on a short dipole. The wave
is linearly polarized with electric field in the Y-direction. The current
on the dipole is assumed constant and in the same phase over entire
length. The antenna loss resistance=0. Find the dipole maximum effective
aperture and directivity.

__CHAPTER 5: Loop antenna.__- Write a note on loop antenna.
- Derive electric and magnetic fields of a loop
antenna.
- Compare far fields of small loop and short dipole.
- Derive an expression for radiation resistance of a
loop antenna.

__CHAPTER 6: Helical antenna and Yagi-Uda array__- Write a note on helical antenna and helical geometry.
- Derive the relation between circumference spacing
turn lengths and pitch angle of a helix.
- Show the limiting cases of a helix when :

i.
Spacing is zero.

ii.
Diameter is zero.

- Explain helix modes of operation.
- Explain the following parameters of monoflair axial
helix antenna: (a) Gain (b) Bam width (c) Impedance.
- Write short note on Yagi-Uda array antenna.

__CHAPTER 7: Antenna types.__
1
Write short note on:

i.
1 Slot antenna.

ii.
Complementary antenna.

iii.
Horn antenna and its types.

iv.
Log periodic antenna.

v.
Broad band frequency independent antenna.

vi.
Antennas for terrestrial mobile communication systems.

vii.
Antennas for ground penetrating Radar.

viii.
Embedded antennas.

ix.
Ultra Wide band antennas for digital applications.

x.
Plasma antenna.

2
Explain different types of reflectors.

3
Explain parabolic reflectors.

4
Explain the types of feed systems for a reflector.

5
Differentiate between circular and rectangular horn
antenna.

__CHAPTER 8: Wave propagation.__
6
Write short notes on:

7
Wave propagation.

i.
2.Scatter systems.

- Surface wave propagation.

i.
4.Surface wave tilting.

ii.
5.Space wave propagation.

iii.
6.Ionosphere propagation.

iv.
7.Structure of ionosphere.

v.
8.Sky wave propagation.

vi.
9Duct propagation.

- Derive an expression for tilt angle.
- Derive an expression for distance of communication.
- Obtain an expression for space wave field component
taking into account a direct wave field component and a reflected wave
from the earth surface.
- Derive an expression for refractive index.
- Define the following and derive the relevant
expressions:

i.
Critical frequency.

ii.
Maximum usable frequency.

iii.
Virtual height.

iv.
Skip distance.

__CHAPTER 9: Ionosphere propagation.__- Briefly explain characteristics of different ionized
layers in ionospheric propagation.
- Calculate the critical frequency for a medium at
which the wave reflects if the maximum electron density is 1.24*10
^{6}electrons/cm^{3}. - Which propagation will aid the following frequencies
and why. (a) 120KHz. (b) 10MHz. (c) 300 MHz. (d) 30GHz.
- Estimate the surface wave tilt in degrees over an
earth of 12mm conductivity and relative permittivity 20 at a wave length
of 300m.
- A transmitter radiates 100Wof power at a frequency of
50MHz, so that space wave propagation takes place. The transmitting antenna
has a gain of 5 and its height is 50m. The receiving antenna height is 2m.
It is estimated that a field strength of 100 ?V/m is required to give a
satisfactory result. Calculate the distance between transmitter and
receiver.

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